GRE写作

部分内容摘自”GRE写作高频题目及考点精析”——颜余真 王耕伟 陈琦

综述

GRE作文改革后,新加入了14种具体指令(Issue 6种,Augment 8种),这些具体指令约束了整篇文章的布局和行文,所以相对应的也有其特殊的写作方法,如果不按照题目中所给的指令(direction)来写,最后得分最多只有3分(类比于语文作文中的偏题),所以明确具体指令的要求,按照要求来行文非常重要,下面将依次介绍各指令的具体要求及解析,以供参考

Issue具体指令及解析

1. “是非判断类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how these consideration shape your position.

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论你在多大程度上同意或者不同意题目中的陈述,解释你所采取的立场的理由。在发展和支持你的立场的过程中,你应该考虑这个陈述成立或者不成立的情况,并且解释这些情况如何影响你的立场

讲解

此类题型对应题目的语气往往是“作判断”或者“下定义”,是讨论某一件事情的是与非,Direction要求我们表明我们在多大程度上同意这个判断或定义并且说明什么情况下同意或者反对,这种Direction实际上是约束最小的(最“安全”),对我们的写作并没有很明确的严格要求

对于我们对观点的立场,不一定非正即反,我们可以部分同意题中观点或者部分反对,ETS对我们所采取的立场并不看重,只要能自圆其说,有力的解释自己的立场即可,这一点适用于Issue部分所有的Direction

2. “因果类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论你在多大程度上同意或者不同意题目中的结论以及支持这个结论的理由

讲解

题干由两部分组成,一部分称为claim,即观点或者结论,另一部分叫做reason,即支持这个结论的理由。要求我们既要谈到结论,又要提到题中支持结论的原因,在谈到原因时,还可以谈论该原因是否能够支持结论,即这个从原因到结论的推理是否合理

同样的,我们的立场可以很多样,我们可以分别对claim,reason,claim->reason有不同的观点

范文参考句型

To sum up, while I partly agree with the issue’s reason, I reserve my approval of both the claim and its assumption. That is to say, …

3. “两种看法类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should address both of the views presented

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论哪个观点和你的立场最接近,解释你所采取的立场的理由。在发展和支持你的观点立场的过程中,必须考虑双方观点

讲解

关键点在于两个观点都要提及,题干中的两个观点可能是互相排斥,也可能不是互相矛盾的,所以我们的立场并不一定是肯定其中一个否定另一个,完全可以辩证地看

范文参考思路

文章开头可以改写题目,这样比较节省思考的时间同时还能扩充字数

范文参考句型

What is … or … (两种观点)? There are two seemingly contradictory views on this question. One side argues that …, while the other regards … I tend to give my support to the former view based on …, while I object to the latter since it may result in many negative consequences.

On the contrary, it is dangerous to abide by …

My stance is slightly more aligned with the former

4. “敌方看法类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论你在多大程度上同意或者不同意题目中的观点,解释你所采取的立场的理由。在发展和支持你的立场的过程中,注意讨论那些可以被用来反驳你观点的有力理由和/或例子

讲解

关键点在于不仅要阐明自己的观点,还要讨论敌方观点,注意敌方不是反方,而是我们选择的观点的反对观点,比如针对题目“国家需要让全国学生在进入大学之前学习相同的课程”,如果我们的观点是国家不需要让全国学生在进入大学之前学习相同的课程,那么敌方就是国家需要让全国学生在进入大学之前学习相同的课程

针对敌方观点,可以采用“敌方看法+对敌方看法的分析+对敌方看法的评价”的思路来写,同样的,我们不一定要完全否定敌方看法,可以承认其合理性甚至辩证的看待我们观点和敌方的观点

范文参考思路

1.下定义:对题干中的某个关键词给出个人理解的定义,好处有两方面:1.缩小自己的论证范围,不会让文章显得大而空 2.能够体现我们充分认识到了题目的复杂性

2.对于题干中涉及到两个概念,我们可以从“因果关系”或“充分必要关系”入手

3.面对此类Direction,我们最少要用1段来阐述敌方观点,多则可以3段,陈述敌方观点后还可以对敌方看法做进一步的分析和评价

范文参考句型

对于敌方观点的陈述:

  1. Advocates of this claim will reject my position. They argue that …
  2. Opposition to my argument also comes from …
  3. Although I maintain that …, some people may dispute my position. They claim that …

“建议类”Direction(一)

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论你在多大程度上同意或者不同意题目中的建议,解释你采取的立场的理由。在发展和支持你的立场的过程中,描述一下你认为这个建议有利或者不有利的具体情况,并且解释这些情况如何影响你的立场

讲解

关键点在于在不同情况下,该建议产生的结果,即在什么情况下,该建议是有利或者不利的,将会产生什么样的结果

不能泛泛而谈对该建议支持或者反对,而应该说明具体情形和该建议在该情形下的有利性,从而引出我们的立场

“建议类”Direction(二)

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss your views on the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中讨论你在多大程度上同意或者不同意题目中的政策。在发展和支持你的立场的过程中,考虑一下你认为这个政策可能产生的结果,并且解释这些结果如何影响你的立场

讲解

与前一个Direction类似,只不过题干从建议变成了政策,政策一般更加强硬,实施主体往往是国家、政府、学校等,但是关键点与前一个类似,主要是强调政策可能产生的结果,还有个细微差别在于,前一个Direction需要我们具体阐述不同情况下,这个没有特别要求

Augment具体指令及解析

1. “Assumption类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument depends on these assumptions and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中,考查该文章提到的或者没有提到的前提条件。解释这些前提条件是如何支持题目的,并说明如果这些前提条件没有证实会产生什么结果

讲解

每一道Argument的逻辑漏洞都体现在其推理过程中,推理过程之所以有问题,就是有一些可能不成立的Assumption,其实就是说题目中所得的结论没有经过严密的论证,那么我们就需要挖出这些不成立的Assumptions

写单段
1.找出原文中各论断或结论所依赖的Assumption
2.指出这些Assumption在什么情况下不成立
3.阐明这些Assumption一旦不成立,作者的结论就会被削弱

范文参考句型

In the letter/memo…, the writer recommends … and predicts that …(一般是达成什么效果). While this might be beneficial to some extent, the reasoning of this argument is unconvincing due to several unsubstantiated assumptions which, if proven unwarranted, will seriously challenge the author’s recommendation.

First of all, the author’s recommendation relies heavily on the assumptions that …

Even if the assumptions mentioned above are valid, the writer’s recommendation could be unnecessary due to the doubtful assumption regarding

Even if we concede the aforementioned assumptions, the recommendation may still not be advisable because …

To summarize, whether or not we should implement the writer’s recommendation depends greatly on the validity of the assumptions in the argument. If these assumptions prove unwarranted, then the recommendation will be little more than the writer’s wishful thinking, and accordingly we need to consider other solutions …

To sum up, whether or not … is still questionable and worth further investigation. The answer could turn out to be positive, but only after the author can reasonably demonstrate the validity of his assumptions by offering more compelling evidence.

2. “Evidence类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strength the argument

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中,讨论一下需要哪些具体的证据来评价这个Argument,解释这些证据将如何加强或削弱这个Argument

讲解

思路其实与第一类类似,因为有不成立的Assumption,所以我们还不能评价Argument中的结论,从而我们需要找到新的证据,这些证据可能是加强或者削弱源结论的

写单段
1.指出我们现在还无法评价作者的某一个论断
2.说明为了更好地评价这一论断,我们还需要什么样的新证据
3.用新证据增强或者削弱作者的某一论断

范文参考句型

Although … may finally turn out to be …(true or something positive as the title suggests), close scrutiny reveals that the conclusion lacks critical support and therefore we need more evidence to help evaluate the argument.

First of all, we need evidence to verify …

no evidence serves to rule out the possibility that …

​ If new evidence shows that …, …, and thus the author’s recommendation is weakened. However, if new evidence discloses an opposite situation, then the proposal in the argument is lent great support to.

In addition, we need more evidence to ascertain whether …

Finally, despite the presence of all the previous evidence, an accurate evaluation of the developers’ request requires additional information.

To sum up, the evidence cited by the developers does not provide enough conclusive information to make their request convincing. As a result/As a consequence, we need additional evidence to better evaluate the argument.

Although …(state conclusion in the title), more evidence is needed to help us evaluate the author’s conclusion. Close scrutiny reveals several key conclusions in his/her argument that lack critical support.

Firstly, evidence revealing … is critically needed to assist the evaluation of the author’s assertion that …

Yet, based on current information offered by the author it is challenging to evaluate the likelihood of such a scenario.

If new evidence shows that …, then … can be confirmed and the author’s recommendation is thereby more convincing.

If new evidence shows that … then we are disposed to believe that the author’s conclusion is advisable.

However, I remain doubtful of this conclusion and require more evidence to substantiate it.

To draw a conclusion, we need further proof to form a better evaluation of the argument. Only after weighing all the evidence which serve to weaken the conclusion as well as those supporting the argument, can we come to a decision about the soundness of this argument.

3. “Explanation类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanations can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中,讨论一个或者更多的解释,这个解释也同样能合理地说明文章中的事实

讲解

这类题目作者会先陈述一个事实或现象,接着会给出作者对这个事实或现象的解释,然而,这种解释可能并非唯一的,所以我们需要找出其他可能的解释,并具体说明这些解释能够如何说明文章中的事实和现象

写单段
1.复述作者对题目中现象的解释,指出其解释不唯一
2.给出其他解释并详细说明

范文参考句型

While I concede that … could …, I maintain that other plausible explanations can also account for the facts presented in this argument.

However, with only the current information, we are unable to decide which explanation is best. Nor is it utterly certain that one factor alone is responsible for the facts presented in the argument.

In addition, it will be unfair to keep blind to the possible scenario wherein …

All of the aforementioned explanations pose a great challenge upon, if not utterly reverse, the proposed one in the argument.

To summarize, although it is reasonable to believe that a relaxed lifestyle contributes to …, there are several alternative that could challenge the author’s one and can also plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument. However, it is unreasonable to draw hasty conclusions about which explanation is best until further examination concerning

While this might be the case, we cannot easily ignore other explanations which could rival the proposed one endorsed by the argument.

Either of these two explanations, once proves true, could easily compete the one proposed by the …

Even if …, it is hasty to attributesolely to …

Thereby it is ill-conceived to solely credit … to …

To summarize, while … may plausibly account for a lower rate of … , I remain open to different explanations that also help to illustrate the facts presented in this argument. Unless … offers clarification, I remain doubtful/skeptical that his/her explanation is the only possibility.

Reasonable though this explanation might appear, we cannot safely claim that it is the only one that can reasonably account for the facts presented in the argument.

could have also sprung from other factors

It is even likely that all the aforementioned factors might have conspired to the finding of those tools.

4. “Question类”Direction

中英文Direction

Write a response in which you discuss what question would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation

写一篇文章,在这篇文章中,讨论需要问什么问题来判断题目中的建议是否会取得预想的结果。解释这些问题的答案会如何帮助你评价题目中的建议

讲解

本质上和其他几种Direction没有什么区别,只是形式变成了问问题

写单段
1.指出我们现在还无法评价原Argument中的某一论断
2.说明为了更好地评价这一建议,我们还需要问什么样的问题
3.给出问题的答案并用答案来评价题目中的建议(可以正面也可以负面)

范文参考句型

whether the author’s prediction is reasonable hinges on the answers to the following questions

The first series of questions I am going to put forward revolve around the actual consequences brought about by …

More specifically, I need to ask …

If the answers to this question is positive, then … and therefore the writer’s final prediction is open to doubt.

On the contrary, if it turns out to be the other way around, then the prediction is strengthen instead.

If the answer to either of these two questions is yes, then the argument’s prediction is undermined; otherwise it is shored up(支撑).

5. Other four Direction

除了上述四种Direction之外,还有四种,但是可以归并到“Question类”,处理方式也基本一致,不再赘述

特别注意:如果 Question 类的写作指令中出现了 prediction 而不是 recommendation,则必须去、且只能去质疑 prediction 的充分性,而不能讨论必要性

举例,如果作者给出的 recommendation 或者 conclusion 是,为了减少感冒,我们要多吃鱼,则除了可以质疑吃鱼不能减少感冒以外,还可以说,减少感冒除了吃鱼还有其他更好的方法,而如果作者给出的是 prediction,就只能质疑充分性,而不能去讨论还有没有别的可能的情况(列举它因就不可以用了)

思路

题型:

Argument,A 做了 x,得到了 y,B 也想要 y,所以 B 也要做 x。

遇到这类题目的思考方法:

  1. 质疑 y 不存在。 注意 y 是 fact,fact 是不能质疑的,只能质疑 assumption,但是可以质疑 y 中的数字(给了比例没有给总量,或者给了总量没有给比例,都是数据不完整)
  2. x 得到 y,没有因果关系。
    1. x 和 y 都是事实,但是之间没有因果关系,因为作者没有经过调查、实验。
    2. x 是导致 y 的原因,但是不是主要的原因,或者,还有其他很多原因一起才能促成 x 导致了 y(列举其他可能)
    3. 因果混淆,是有其他可能的原因导致了 y 的发生,并且 y 一直繁荣发展,以至于在某一时刻,y 的发展促成了 x 的形成,并在 x 形成之后,y 继续受到综合因素的影响而继续繁荣发展
  3. A 和 B 是不一样的。 A 依山傍水,B 是内陆,A 是开朗的,B 是内向的,A 的消费水平高,A 受教育的水平高,A 是大学,A 是农村,A 是外企……
  4. A 和 B 是一样的,但是 A 做 x 和 B 做 x 时间不一样,B 晚了,在 A 那时候一起做还可以,现在环境变了,政策变了。
  5. B 除了做 x,有别的更好的途径可以到达 y。 注意这是在质疑必要性,有些题目不能质疑必要性。

题型:

Issue,目的型题目,我们通过 A 到达/实现 B。

  1. ineffectiveness 有效性
  2. feasibility 可行性
  3. side effects 副作用
  4. other solutions 其他方法

常见单词

英文单词中文释义
jeopardize危害
hastily草率地
exemplify是…的典型
holistic全面的
validity合法性、有效性
scrutiny仔细检查,细看

难题

  1. 什么叫 define ourselves

例子收集

  1. 社会团体会定义一个人的思维和行为模式
    1. 民主党和共和党、自由和保守
    2. STEM 和 liberal arts 的思维方式不同
    3. 宗教
      1. Ten commmandments
      2. The Golden Rule: Do to others what you want them to do to you
      3. The Silver Rule: 己所不欲勿施于人

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